The Waning of Revenge & the Rise of Courts
The increase in commercial activity in England brings potential conflict. The dooms of the 9th, 10th, and 11th centuries deal with disputes between merchants and
subjects of the king, as well as personal matters. They restrict trade to specific ports and mandate that transactions be witnessed. More and more, criminal charges
must be brought before officials of the king or to the courts instead of resolved through vengeance.